Technology transfer is the movement of data, designs, inventions, materials, software, technical knowledge or trade secrets from one organisation to another or from one purpose to another. The technology transfer process is guided by the policies, procedures and values of each organisation involved in the process. Also known as transfer of technology (ToT), technology transfer can take place between universities, businesses and governments, either formally or informally, to share skills, knowledge, technologies, manufacturing methods, and more. This form of knowledge transfer helps ensure that scientific and technological developments are available to a wider range of users who can then help develop or exploit it. This transfer can occur horizontally across different areas or vertically by moving technologies, for example, from research centres to research and development teams.
IISD-CMI is working with, Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), under Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India; in facilitating appropriate International Technology Transfer in Renewable Energy and Climate Change sector for India, by 2035 and 2050.
Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome over one or more issues where a conflict exists with respect to at least one of these issues. Negotiation is an interaction and process between entities who aspire to agree on matters of mutual interest, while optimizing their individual utilities. This beneficial outcome can be for all of the parties involved, or just for one or some of them.
Negotiators need to understand the negotiation process and other negotiators to increase their chances to close deals, avoid conflicts, establishing relationship with other parties and gain profit and maximize mutual gains. It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. Distributive negotiations, or compromise, is conducted by putting forward a position and making concessions to achieve an agreement. The degree to which the negotiating parties trust each other to implement the negotiated solution is a major factor in determining whether negotiations are successful. People negotiate daily, often without considering it a negotiation.
Negotiation occurs in organizations, including businesses, non-profits, and within and between governments as well as in sales and legal proceedings, and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, etc. Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiator, or hostage negotiators. They may also work under other titles, such as diplomats, legislators, or brokers. There is also negotiation conducted by algorithms or machines known as autonomous negotiation. For automation, the negotiation participants and process have to be modelled correctly.
IISD-CMI engages in International Climate Change Negotiations of UNFCCC each year, at Conference of Parties (COP), as an Indian Civil Society Organization (CSO), in an Observer status.
Arbitration is a procedure in which a dispute is submitted, by agreement of the parties, to one or more arbitrators who make a binding decision on the dispute. In choosing arbitration, the parties opt for a private dispute resolution procedure instead of going to court..
Arbitration can only take place if both parties have agreed to it. In the case of future disputes arising under a contract, the parties insert an arbitration clause in the relevant contract. An existing dispute can be referred to arbitration by means of a submission agreement between the parties. In contrast to mediation, a party cannot unilaterally withdraw from arbitration.
Under the WIPO Arbitration Rules, the parties can select a sole arbitrator together. If they choose to have a three-member arbitral tribunal, each party appoints one of the arbitrators; those two persons then agree on the presiding arbitrator. Alternatively, the Center can suggest potential arbitrators with relevant expertise or directly appoint members of the arbitral tribunal. The Center maintains an extensive roster of arbitrators ranging from seasoned dispute-resolution generalists to highly specialized practitioners and experts covering the entire legal and technical spectrum of intellectual property.
If you wish to get enganged and take the advantage of any of above activities of us at IISD-CMI's educational program, You are welcome to join us, as a Partner and collaborate for enhancing our professional strengh or can avail our Technology Transfer, Neogotiations and Arbitation related services in 51 focus areas of IISD-CMI, You can always Contact us at [email protected] and [email protected]
An IISD-CMI Side Event at a COP of UNFCCC on Technology Transfer
Dr Srikanta K. Panigrahi, DG-IISD, was a Part of the Organizing, Negotiation Team and of Govt. Delegation of Team-India, at COP-8, New Delhi and Few Other COPs, of UNFCCC.